I recently answered a question on this error on the Community forms and coincidently I've just come up against exactly the same issue!
When importing a solution you receive the error 'There was an error calculating dependencies for this component' and on downloading the log you see the full message similar to:
The dependent component Attribute (Id=transactioncurrencyid) does not exist. Failure trying to associate it with Workflow (Id=<GUID>) as a dependency. Missing dependency lookup type = AttributeNameLookup.
Although this message can appear for other attributes, this post is specifically to do with the transactioncurrencyid attribute being referenced.
When you add a money field to an entity CRM automatically adds a N:1 relationship to the currency entity to hold the currency that the value is stored against. The foreign key attribute is always named transactioncurrencyid.
In this increasingly 'agile' software development world attributes are added and remove fairly regularly during the development phase. If a money field is added to an entity and then removed, the transactioncurrencyid attribute is not removed. Because the relationship automatically created by the system it is not created when deploying to another environment via a solution import because there are no money fields. This leads to your development environment having the additional relationship. This wouldn't cause a problem apart from that when you create a workflow with a 'create' or 'update' step, the currency field is usually pre-populated with the default currency. Consequently when you try to import this workflow into another organization that does not have the currency relationship you will see this error.
The solution is to either delete the transactioncurrencyid field from your development environmentm and from the workflow create/update steps or simply add a dummy currency field to your target environment in order to create the relationship to currency.